Beat: to mix briskly with a spoon, rotary beater or electric beater, to incorporate air into

mixture, making it light and smooth.

Blend: to mix ingredients together thoroughly.

Cream: to soften and blend an ingredient (eg butter) or a mixture of ingredients (eg butter

and sugar) until the soft consistency of cream is obtained.

Fold in: to lightly incorporate ingredients, with defintive folding movements - not stirring.

Prove: to allow to rise in a warm place, term used where raising agent has been added to the mixture.

Rub in: to mix fat and flour together with the fingertips, until the mixture resembles bread crumbs.

Whisk: to beat rapidly to incorporate air, usually with a rotary beater, electric beater or whisk.

All-purpose flour - plain cake flour

Confectioner's sugar - icing sugar

Java beans - broad beans

Scallion - spring onions

Shortening - white fat

Parchment paper - greaseproof paper used for baking